L'histoire

Keim Homestead, Pennsylvanie

Keim Homestead, Pennsylvanie


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En règle générale, mes ancêtres sont venus aux États-Unis d'aujourd'hui en tant qu'unités familiales. Cependant, le sujet du billet de blog de cette semaine est venu en Pennsylvanie seule en 1698 pour visiter la région, est retourné dans l'Allemagne actuelle, s'est marié et est retourné en Pennsylvanie en 1708.

Johannes Keim (1675-1753) est né près de Speier, Rhénanie Palatinat, Allemagne en 1675. Son arrière-grand-père Ludwig Hericourt Keim (1586-1664) avait été officier pendant la guerre de Trente Ans et était Landgrave d'Alsace. Son grand-père George Keim (1623-1690) était marchand à Speier. Selon P.C. Croll, auteur de Annales de la vallée d'Oley dans le comté de Berks, en Pennsylvanie., l'invasion française du Palatinat pendant la guerre de la Ligue d'Augsbourg (1689-1697) a ruiné financièrement Johannes Keim, alors il s'est rendu en Pennsylvanie et a jalonné une concession dans la vallée d'Oley avant de rentrer chez lui.

Johannes a épousé Katharina DeTurk en 1706 et est retourné en Pennsylvanie à temps pour que son enfant aîné, Katharina, naisse en 1708. Il a eu sept enfants avec Katharina avant sa mort en 1731. Il a épousé Maria Elizabeth Boller cette année-là, et ensemble ils ont eu un neuf enfants supplémentaires. Par mon arrière-arrière-grand-mère Catharine Ann Yoder Manwiller, mon 5e arrière-grand-père Jacob Keim (1724-1799) est un fils de sa première femme. Jacob épousa Maria Magdalena Hoch (1730-1804), et leur petite-fille Magdalena Schlegel (1802-1888) épousa Reuben Barto Yoder (1802-1838), petit-fils de Maria Catherine. Ma 5e arrière-grand-mère, Maria Catherine Keim (1734-1803) est une fille du second mariage qu'elle a épousée avec Jacob Yoder, le grand-père de Ruben. Johannes est également un ancêtre immigrant de mon arrière-arrière-grand-père Adam Yoder Weidenhammer par l'intermédiaire de Maria Catherine Keim.

Johannes Keim a obtenu un mandat pour sa propriété du comté de Philadelphie le 27 janvier 1719 et un brevet le 11 juin 1735. Il s'est rendu à Philadelphie en avril 1743 pour être naturalisé en tant que citoyen de l'Empire britannique et, en tant que propriétaire foncier, était éligible de voter et d'occuper une charge publique. Son testament, homologué le 1er janvier 1754, mentionnait que sa femme s'occupait de dix jeunes enfants, manifestement cela avait été écrit quelques années avant sa mort. parce que Maria Catherine avait dix-neuf ans quand son père est mort. La ferme familiale existe toujours


Début de la grève de Homestead

Avec le syndicat&# x2019s contrat de trois ans avec Carnegie arrivant à échéance en juin 1892, Frick a annoncé des réductions de salaire pour des centaines de travailleurs de Homestead. Après avoir refusé de négocier avec le syndicat, il a fermé l'aciérie de Homestead le 29 juin, mettant en lock-out 3 800 travailleurs. Seuls environ 725 de ces travailleurs appartenaient à Amalgamated, mais tous ont voté en faveur de la grève, surprenant Frick, qui avait supposé que seuls les membres du syndicat feraient grève.

Après que Frick ait fait construire une haute clôture surmontée de fil de fer barbelé autour du moulin lui-même, ce qui a amené les travailleurs à le surnommer «Fort Frick», des travailleurs armés ont encerclé l'usine et bouclé la ville. Afin de protéger les briseurs de grève qu'il prévoyait d'embaucher, Frick a suivi l'exemple de nombreux industriels luttant contre les syndicats et a fait appel à la Pinkerton National Detective Agency. Les détectives de Pinkerton étaient connus pour avoir infiltré des syndicats et brisé des grèves dans tout le pays, y compris dans une autre usine de Carnegie quelques années plus tôt.

Photographie stéréoscopique montrant des travailleurs de l'acier en grève sur une colline au-dessus de la Carnegie Steel Company&aposs Homestead Steel Works à Homestead, Pennsylvanie, juillet 1892.


Préservation historique de la Pennsylvanie

25 janvier 2017 par Shelby Weaver Splain | 1 commentaire

Ce mois-ci, Shout Out comprend d'excellentes nouvelles sur les nouveaux monuments historiques nationaux de PA, des trucs sympas dans le comté de Cumberland et de nouveaux projets de recherche !

LNH de Pennsylvanie

Non, je ne parle pas des deux équipes de PA dans la Ligue nationale de hockey, même si nous sommes actuellement en pleine saison de hockey sur glace. Je parle de nos monuments historiques nationaux (LNH en abrégé). Jusqu'à il y a quelques semaines, la Pennsylvanie n'avait que 171 points de repère. Le ministère de l'Intérieur a annoncé en janvier que le secrétaire Jewell avait désigné 24 nouveaux LNH et que deux se trouvent justement en Pennsylvanie. Vous pouvez voir la liste complète ici et – wow ! – nos LNH font partie d'une liste très impressionnante !

Qu'est-ce qu'un monument historique national ? Les monuments historiques nationaux sont des lieux historiques d'importance nationale (par opposition à ceux qui n'ont d'importance qu'au niveau local ou de l'État) qui sont désignés comme tels par le secrétaire de l'Intérieur parce qu'ils possèdent une valeur ou une qualité exceptionnelle pour illustrer ou interpréter le patrimoine. des États-Unis. Il existe plus de 2 500 LNH à travers le pays qui incarnent et reflètent les lieux, les idées, les jalons et les personnalités importants qui ont façonné le pays depuis sa fondation jusqu'au milieu du 20e siècle.

Le premier est le Keim Homestead à Oley, dans le comté de Berks, qui a été désigné comme un exemple exceptionnellement intact de l'architecture vernaculaire domestique germano-américaine des débuts. Construit env. 1753, la maison principale et le bâtiment annexe représentent des méthodes de construction, des éléments de décoration architecturale et des modèles d'aménagement et de conception des habitations et des dépendances domestiques qui étaient caractéristiques de la tradition germano-américaine du milieu du XVIIIe siècle. Le Keim Homestead est l'un des nombreux sites historiques détenus et exploités par l'Historic Preservation Trust of Berks County - la prochaine fois que vous êtes prêt pour un voyage en voiture, la vallée d'Oley est toujours un endroit idéal pour voir l'incroyable architecture allemande de Pennsylvanie.

La ferme Keim dans le canton de Pike, dans le comté de Berks, dans la vallée d'Oley. Photo datée d'août 2013 et prise par Hshuvaeva, utilisée sous licence Creative Commons.

De l'autre côté de l'État, nous avons le Fonderie et atelier d'usinage W. A. ​​Young & Sons à Rices Landing, dans le comté de Greene et détenu et exploité par la zone du patrimoine national de Rivers of Steel. Ce site industriel est un exemple exceptionnel de petite fonderie et atelier d'usinage familial du XXe siècle. Les « ateliers de travail » comme WA Young & Sons, qui effectuaient des travaux personnalisés pour une variété de clients, étaient une composante importante de l'économie industrielle américaine facilitée par le développement de machines-outils et de systèmes d'alimentation à arbre de ligne à la fin du XVIIIe et au début du XVIIIe siècle. XIXe siècles. La propriété comprend peut-être la plus belle collection de machines-outils trouvée dans un petit atelier de travail. Jetez-y un œil la prochaine fois que vous serez dans SW PA !

Devant la fonderie et atelier d'usinage W.A. Young & Sons, situé le long de la rue Water en 1991. Construite vers 1900, la fonderie est une propriété contributive du district historique de Rice’s Landing, qui est inscrit au registre national des lieux historiques. Photographie située à la Bibliothèque du Congrès, Division des estampes et des photographies HAER : PA,30-RILA,1-47.

Moderne du milieu du siècle du comté de Cumberland

En décembre, la Société historique du comté de Cumberland a organisé sa première conférence annuelle Richard C. Reed sur l'architecture du comté de Cumberland, où l'historienne de l'architecture Wendy Pires a parlé de l'architecture moderne du milieu du siècle à Carlisle. Donc, si vous êtes un fan de Mid-Century Mod ou de Carlisle, faites une pause dans votre emploi du temps chargé et regardez un enregistrement de son discours. Vous pouvez entendre le Dr Steve Burg, membre du State Historic Preservation Board, donner une conférence sur la Première Guerre mondiale à la Historical Society en quelques semaines seulement.

Vous pourriez vous attendre à voir Carlisle rempli de bâtiments des XIXe et XXe siècles comme cette résidence en pierre. Regardez la vidéo de la société historique du comté de Cumberland pour découvrir qu'il y a beaucoup plus d'architecture récente à aimer là-bas!

Projet à surveiller

Le Center for Land Use and Sustainability de l'Université de Shippensburg et des géographes de l'Université de Millersville, avec l'aide d'une subvention de recherche du Center for Rural PA, ont lancé un projet visant à étudier les ordonnances municipales de préservation historique en Pennsylvanie. En dressant un inventaire des ordonnances existantes et des méthodes par lesquelles les municipalités protègent leurs ressources historiques, l'équipe de recherche évaluera l'état actuel des ordonnances de préservation et analysera les impacts de ces outils sur les activités de préservation historique à l'échelle municipale.

Restez à l'écoute, je suis sûr que nous aurons un blog ou deux sur leurs recherches et leurs découvertes !

Auteur : Shelby Weaver Splain

Shelby Weaver Splain est la coordonnatrice de l'éducation et de la sensibilisation pour le bureau de préservation historique de l'État de Pennsylvanie. Shelby est originaire du comté de Bucks et détient une maîtrise en planification de la préservation historique de l'Université Cornell et un baccalauréat ès arts avec distinction en préservation historique du Goucher College.


Trouver des enregistrements de propriété en Pennsylvanie

Une recherche dans les dossiers de propriété de Pennsylvanie localise les documents immobiliers liés à la propriété en Pennsylvanie. Les dossiers de propriété publique fournissent des informations sur les terres, les maisons et les propriétés commerciales, y compris les titres, les actes de propriété, les hypothèques, les dossiers d'évaluation de l'impôt foncier et d'autres documents. Plusieurs bureaux gouvernementaux de l'État de Pennsylvanie tiennent des registres de propriété, qui sont un outil précieux pour comprendre l'histoire d'une propriété, trouver des informations sur le propriétaire et évaluer une propriété en tant qu'acheteur ou vendeur.


Quoi Keim les dossiers de famille trouverez-vous?

Il y a 24 000 enregistrements de recensement disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Comme une fenêtre sur leur vie quotidienne, les registres de recensement de Keim peuvent vous indiquer où et comment vos ancêtres travaillaient, leur niveau d'éducation, leur statut d'ancien combattant, etc.

Il y a 3 000 dossiers d'immigration disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Les listes de passagers vous permettent de savoir quand vos ancêtres sont arrivés aux États-Unis et comment ils ont effectué le voyage - du nom du navire aux ports d'arrivée et de départ.

Il y a 9 000 dossiers militaires disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Pour les anciens combattants parmi vos ancêtres Keim, les collections militaires fournissent des informations sur l'endroit et le moment où ils ont servi, et même des descriptions physiques.

Il y a 24 000 enregistrements de recensement disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Comme une fenêtre sur leur vie quotidienne, les registres de recensement de Keim peuvent vous indiquer où et comment vos ancêtres travaillaient, leur niveau d'éducation, leur statut d'ancien combattant, etc.

Il y a 3 000 dossiers d'immigration disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Les listes de passagers vous permettent de savoir quand vos ancêtres sont arrivés aux États-Unis et comment ils ont effectué le voyage - du nom du navire aux ports d'arrivée et de départ.

Il y a 9 000 dossiers militaires disponibles pour le nom de famille Keim. Pour les vétérans parmi vos ancêtres Keim, les collections militaires fournissent des informations sur l'endroit et le moment où ils ont servi, et même des descriptions physiques.


Manoir Baleroy

Chestnut Hill, Philadelphie.

Alors que ce domaine de Chestnut Hill est censé être hanté par bon nombre de ses anciens propriétaires, dont le plus sinistre est une femme nommée Amelia qui incite souvent les gens à s'asseoir sur une "chaise de mort". Selon l'ancien propriétaire, George Meade Easby, celui qui s'assoit dans cette chaise meurt peu de temps après. Il a affirmé avoir connu deux personnes, une femme de ménage et un cousin, qui ont succombé à la malédiction. La maison a même été présentée dans le livre

Remarque : Baleroy Mansion est une résidence privée et n'est pas ouverte aux visites.


Aperçu de l'histoire

Ceci n'est pas censé être une histoire complète du canton de Mifflin, mais un bref aperçu de la façon dont le canton de Mifflin d'origine a évolué pour devenir les communautés actuelles de Baldwin (partie), Clairton, Duquesne, Dravosburg, Hays, Homestead, Jefferson Hills, Lincoln Place, Munhall, Pleasant Hills, West Elizabeth, West Homestead, West Mifflin et Whitaker.

Avant la colonisation de la région de Pittsburgh, les collines et les vallées du canton de Mifflin étaient les terrains de chasse des Indiens du Delaware.

Le canton de Mifflin est situé dans la partie sud-est du comté d'Allegheny. Le centre du canton se trouve à environ huit miles du centre-ville de Pittsburgh.

La colonie de Virginie revendiquait cette zone en expansion au début du XVIIIe siècle. Le détail complet de la colonisation britannique ne sera pas discuté et peut être lu dans d'autres domaines. Notre zone actuelle au milieu du 18ème siècle était située dans le comté de Yohogania du district occidental d'Augusta, en Virginie. Le palais de justice était situé dans la région de West Elizabeth sur une colline au-dessus de Walton Road dans la plantation Heath. Ici, les problèmes judiciaires quotidiens étaient traités par les tribunaux ainsi que les perceptions fiscales.

La Pennsylvanie et la Virginie ont mené la controversée « guerre de Dunmore » qui peut être lue dans d'autres domaines. Avec la mise en place définitive de la ligne Mason-Dixon, qui donna les frontières de la Virginie, de la Pennsylvanie, du Maryland et du Delaware en 1784.

Notre pays s'est formé après la guerre de la Révolution et la fin du Congrès constitutionnel. Notre région se trouvait dans le comté de Washington, dans l'État de Pennsylvanie. Le comté d'Allegheny a été formé en septembre 1788 avec des portions des comtés de Westmoreland et de Washington.

Il y avait sept cantons lorsque le comté a été formé : Elizabeth, Mifflin, Moon, Pitt, Plum, Saint Clair et Versailles. Pitt était le plus grand qui s'étendait de la rivière Ohio aux rives du lac Érié. En 1800, les limites actuelles du comté ont été finalisées.

Les premiers colons du district sont arrivés dans le dernier quart du XVIIIe siècle. En décembre 1788, toute la zone le long de la rivière, de West Elizabeth à Hays, devint l'un des sept cantons d'origine du comté d'Allegheny et fut nommée canton de Mifflin en l'honneur de Thomas Mifflin qui fut le premier gouverneur de l'État.

Pendant près d'un siècle, la colonisation dans le canton de Mifflin était principalement agricole. La superficie d'origine du canton était de 34 milles carrés. À cette époque, les transports étaient inexistants à moins d'avoir la chance de posséder un cheval et les déplacements étaient limités. Les routes étaient de simples chemins à travers les bois et montaient et descendaient les collines.

Les gens de cette époque croyaient beaucoup au vote parce que c'était leur droit en tant que citoyens de ce grand pays. Le seul bureau de vote (appelé « bureaux de vote » à l'époque) était à l'église du Liban. L'église du Liban a été fondée en 1776 et est l'une des plus anciennes églises de l'ouest de la Pennsylvanie (avec Bethel qui a été formée la même année). Le nouveau canton a été nommé Jefferson Township en l'honneur du président Thomas Jefferson.

La zone le long de la rivière Monongahela en face d'Elizabeth, en Pennsylvanie, est devenue une région très peuplée, à cette époque, en raison de sa principale industrie de construction navale. Les travailleurs ont afflué dans cette région pour travailler dans les chantiers navals et les mines de charbon nouvellement ouvertes le long des collines. En 1848, l'arrondissement de West Elizabeth a été formé.

En 1850, Abdiel McClure, petit-fils de John McClure, vendit 150 acres de sa propriété Amity Homestead à la ville de Pittsburgh pour en faire une ferme urbaine. En 1871, 113 acres supplémentaires de l'Amity Homestead ont été vendus à la nouvelle société Homestead Bank and Trust Company. Ce terrain a été subdivisé en lots résidentiels et, en 1880, une communauté florissante de 596 habitants s'était développée. Un an plus tard, cette communauté a été constituée en arrondissement de Homestead le 15 octobre 1880.

Une grande étendue de terre à l'est de la ferme de la ville appartenait aux frères Munhall, qui exploitaient un service de barges transportant du charbon et du minerai de fer le long de la rivière. En 1879, ils vendirent 50 acres de terrain à la Pittsburgh Bessemer Steel Company. Un moulin a été construit pour abriter le convertisseur Bessemer nouvellement développé et un moulin en fleurs. Le premier lingot Bessemer a été coulé le 19 mars 1881.

À partir de cette date, la croissance du canton de Mifflin est explosive. Les réserves de charbon et de fer de l'ouest de la Pennsylvanie, une rivière navigable pour le transport de ces matières premières et, en 1872, la construction de la ligne de chemin de fer Pittsburgh, Virginie et Charleston à travers le district avaient préparé le canton de Mifflin à la révolution industrielle qui a balayé la nation dans ce dernier moitié du XIXe siècle.

Des milliers d'immigrants affluèrent dans le canton de Mifflin pour travailler dans les aciéries. Contrairement aux premiers colons anglais, allemands et irlandais, les travailleurs pionniers industriels du canton de Mifflin venaient d'Europe centrale et méridionale : Slaves, Polonais, Russes et Italiens. Ils s'installèrent près des moulins sur les terres plates le long des rivières. De longues heures de travail, des conditions de logement presque incroyablement surpeuplées et un manque total d'installations sanitaires étaient les offrandes en 1890.

L'industrie sidérurgique s'est multipliée et le canton de Mifflin avec elle. Les usines de Bessemer avaient été acquises par la Carnegie Phipps Company en 1883 et ont été réorganisées sous le nom de Carnegie Steel Company juste après 1890. L'industrie sidérurgique en plein essor de Carnegie a été secouée par de violentes protestations des travailleurs lors de la célèbre grève de Homestead de 1892. Malgré les difficultés de leur nouvelle vie, de nouveaux travailleurs se sont entassés dans le canton de Mifflin. Les résidents plus âgés ont commencé à s'éloigner des zones de l'aciérie et à construire des maisons au-dessus des collines. Vivre sur la colline au-dessus des moulins est devenu un indice d'un statut social et économique qui n'a jamais complètement disparu.

Duquesne a été constituée en arrondissement le 12 septembre 1891. Ses premiers colons vivaient au sommet de la colline dans un village connu sous le nom de Germantown. C'était une région agricole à ses débuts avec de nombreuses grandes fermes et vergers fertiles. Dans les années 1870, cette zone abritait les terrains de camping méthodistes. Chaque été, de nombreuses réunions de réveil ont eu lieu avec des personnes venant à eux par bateau à vapeur sur le fleuve.

La Duquesne Steel Company a été la première industrie de Duquesne et a été formée le 28 mai 1885. En 1888, elle a été achetée par la Allegheny Bessemer Steel Company. La Duquesne Tube Works a été construite en avril 1887 avec des investisseurs et des employés de la National Tube Works à McKeesport. La Howard Plate Glass Company fut la troisième société à être formée en avril 1888 près de l'actuel pont McKeesport-Duquesne. La Carnegie Steel Company a acheté l'aciérie en 1890 et a agrandi son usine en achetant les usines de tubes et de verre. Les ouvriers sont venus à Duquesne et il a grandi et a été incorporé en tant que ville de troisième classe en 1916.

West Homestead a été constituée en arrondissement en 1901, englobant la nouvelle Mesta Machine Company et le quartier résidentiel qui l'entoure.

En 1901, la United States Steel Corporation a été formée et les fours Carrie de l'autre côté de la rivière à partir de Homestead ont été placés sous la direction de Homestead Works. Munhall a été constituée la même année et a embrassé le domaine des frères Munhall, Munhall Station et Homestead Works de la United States Steel Corporation. Munhall avec le moulin à l'intérieur de ses limites, était un arrondissement beaucoup plus riche que Homestead et a attiré de nombreux membres du personnel de surveillance du moulin dans sa zone résidentielle à flanc de colline.

L'arrondissement de Whitaker a été formé en 1904 à partir de l'ancienne propriété familiale de James Whitaker. La majeure partie de Whitaker est située au sommet d'une colline à une certaine distance du moulin Homestead, et le modèle de développement dans cet arrondissement était beaucoup moins encombré que dans Homestead et West Homestead. Même aujourd'hui, Whitaker conserve certaines caractéristiques rurales.

Dravosburg a été constituée en arrondissement le 30 mars 1903. La région a d'abord été colonisée par l'héritage allemand et gallois. L'extraction du charbon est arrivée dans les années 1850 avec l'ouverture des mines de charbon de pierre. Les autres mines de la région étaient les Dravo, Camden et Risher.

Hays a été constituée en arrondissement en 1904. Cette zone englobait les villages de Six-Mile Ferry, Hope Church. Cette zone chevauchait entre les cantons de Mifflin et de Baldwin qui bordaient Streets Run.

Avec la formation des arrondissements de Homestead, Duquesne, Munhall, West Homestead, Hays, Whitaker et Dravosburg, cela a grandement affecté la population du premier canton de Mifflin.

Le canton de Jefferson, qui faisait autrefois partie du canton de Mifflin, connaissait la même croissance avec la formation d'arrondissements dans sa région. Comme indiqué ci-dessus, West Elizabeth a été la première zone à être constituée en arrondissement en 1848 en raison de sa croissance dans les industries de la construction de bateaux et du charbon.

La région du canton de Jefferson connue aujourd'hui sous le nom de Clairton était un groupe de petites collectivités (Blair, North Clairton et Wilson). L'arrondissement de Clairton a été érigé en arrondissement le 25 avril 1903. Wilson, incorporé en arrondissement le 4 mars 1907. La ville (village) de Blair a été incorporée en tant que North Clairton le 7 mai 1915.

Avec la croissance rapide de l'industrie sidérurgique, qui a commencé avec la St. Clair Steel Company appartenant à Crucible Steel, les arrondissements de Clairton, Wilson et North Clairton ont été constitués en ville de troisième classe le 2 janvier 1922.

Même si Clairton est connue pour ses usines de coke, l'installation d'origine possédait 6 hauts fourneaux et 12 foyers ouverts. En 1902, Carnegie Steel Company a acheté l'usine et a agrandi l'installation pour avoir un broyeur à fleurs de 40 pouces, un broyeur à billettes de 28 pouces. chacun en 1918. Six batteries supplémentaires de 61 fours sont entrées en service en 1924 et en 1927, quatre batteries supplémentaires de 87 chacune ont été construites. En 1947, de nombreuses batteries d'origine ont été remplacées par de nouveaux fours. Au fil des ans, Clairton Coke Works a été amélioré pour devenir un système plus efficace qu'il l'est aujourd'hui.

Hays Borough a été annexé par la ville de Pittsburgh et est devenu son 31e arrondissement en 1928. En 1929, la zone de Homestead Park du canton de Mifflin a été annexée par l'arrondissement de Munhall. Dans le même temps, la ville de Pittsburgh a annexé l'arrondissement de Hays, les sections Lincoln Place et New Homestead du canton de Mifflin en tant que 31e arrondissement de Pittsburgh aujourd'hui.

Dans les années 1930, le canton de Mifflin dépérissait de plus en plus. Les commissaires du canton de Mifflin étaient très préoccupés par cette affaire. Le recensement américain de 1930 montrait le canton avec une population de seulement 8 064 personnes, contre 11 267 habitants en 1920.

Les commissaires des cantons ont contribué à amener l'Assemblée générale de l'État de Pennsylvanie à adopter une loi en 1941 autorisant les cantons de 8 000 habitants ou plus à être constitués en arrondissement. Le 11 décembre 1942, une décision favorable a été rendue pour que le canton de Mifflin devienne un arrondissement. Les noms du nouvel arrondissement ont été sélectionnés : Mifflin (a été refusé car il y avait un Mifflin au centre de l'État), Terrace et Homeville ont été sélectionnés pour le nouveau nom. Homeville a été refusé car il y avait déjà un Homeville. À ce moment-là, la pétition au tribunal de comté des sessions de quartier avait dépassé sa limite. Pour les prochaines sessions du quartier du comté, le nom de l'arrondissement « West Mifflin » a été choisi. Cela a gardé le nom de la commune d'origine. L'ancien canton de Mifflin est officiellement devenu l'arrondissement de West Mifflin le premier lundi de janvier 1944 (3 janvier).

Jefferson Township a également ressenti la perte de son territoire avec Clairton. La région de Pleasant Hills du canton a été constituée en arrondissement le 13 avril 1947. Cela a considérablement réduit la population du canton de Jefferson qui était à l'époque un canton de première classe. Les commissaires du canton de Jefferson Township ont déposé une requête auprès du tribunal du comté d'Allegheny de Quarter-Sessions pour l'incorporation en tant qu'arrondissement qui est entré en vigueur en 1950. Le 3 novembre 1998, l'arrondissement de Jefferson a été rebaptisé « Arrondissement de Jefferson Hills ».


Keim Homestead, Pennsylvanie - Histoire

BROWN, CUMMINGS, PINE ET McHENRY.

BRUN. - ORGANISATION - PINE CREEK - ETABLISSEMENT ET DEVELOPPEMENT - BOISSON - VILLAGES BUREAUX DE POSTE - EGLISES ET ECOLES.

CUMMING. - LIMITES ORIGINALES ET ACTUELLES - ENQUÊTE ET ÉTABLISSEMENT - INDUSTRIES - WATERVILLE - MOULINS ANGLAIS - RAMSEYVILLE - PADUCOHI - ÉGLISES - ÉCOLES.

PIN. - ÉRECTION - CARACTÉRISTIQUES PHYSIQUES - UN SÉMINAIRE DANS LE LARGE - L'ÉTABLISSEMENT ANGLAIS - OREGON HILL - CENTRE ANGLAIS - ÉCOLES.

McHENRY. - EFFORTS SUCCESSIFS PAR LESQUELS CE TERRITOIRE ACQUIERT UNE AUTONOMIE POLITIQUE SÉPARÉE - CARACTÉRISTIQUES GÉOLOGIQUES ET TOPOGRAPHIQUES - BOISSON - BUREAUX DE POSTE - ÉCOLES.


CE canton a été parti de Mifflin et Pine Creek le 3 mai 1815, et a reçu l'ordre de s'appeler Brown, « en mémoire du major-général Brown, qui commandait les armées au Canada ». Il se situe à l'extrême nord-ouest du comté et est le cinquième, vers l'ouest, du niveau nord. À l'exception de deux encoches dans le coin sud-est, c'est presque un rectangle parfait en forme. Brown est le cinquième canton en taille, et contient 41 560 acres, avec une population de 885 selon le recensement de 1890. Il est délimité à l'est par le canton de Pine, au nord par le comté de Tioga, à l'ouest par le comté de Potter, et sur le sud par le canton de McHenry, comté de Lycoming.

Pine Creek, qui s'élève à la dignité d'une rivière de montagne, divise le canton en deux parties à peu près égales. Il traverse un ravin étroit sur plusieurs kilomètres, avec des montagnes des deux côtés s'élevant à une hauteur à plusieurs endroits de 2 000 pieds au-dessus de la marée. Le paysage est extrêmement audacieux et pittoresque, et avant l'avènement du chemin de fer, il n'y avait pas d'endroit plus sauvage dans l'État. Parfois, le ruisseau Pine devient un puissant torrent emportant un immense volume d'eau des vastes régions montagneuses qu'il draine. Au point où il entre dans le comté de Lycoming, il est à 820 pieds au-dessus du niveau de la mer. Il a de nombreux affluents, dont certains sont des ruisseaux de taille considérable. Ceux du côté est sont nommés comme suit : Trout run, Jacob's run et Hilborn's run. Du côté ouest, en montant, nous avons la piste de Callahan, la piste de Tomb, la piste Slate, la piste de Miller, la piste de Gamble et la piste de Cedar. L'ardoise et le cèdre sont tous deux des cours d'eau d'une certaine importance et ont longtemps été utilisés pour l'exploitation forestière. Le ruisseau Babb, juste de l'autre côté de la limite nord du canton, est connu comme la deuxième fourche du ruisseau Pine.

L'étude géologique du canton de Brown présente un intérêt considérable. Les roches appartiennent à des formations (Nos IX et XIII). Il y a une petite zone de mesures de charbon le long des marges ouest et nord jouxtant l'autoroute à péage Jersey Shore et Coudersport, et elle englobe également une petite zone du bassin houiller de Pine Creek dans le coin sud-est. On observe une exposition des schistes de Mauch Chunk (No. XI) jusqu'à Slate run, transportant les minerais de fer umbral avec les argiles réfractaires qui les accompagnent.

Une grande partie du plateau montagneux est à 2 000 pieds au-dessus de la marée et est recouverte du sol rocheux exposé du conglomérat de Pottsville (n° XII) à certains endroits dans d'immenses blocs de cinquante sur cent pieds, et dans d'autres toute la surface est couverte pour acres avec les roches conglomérales, qui, couchées les unes sur les autres, forment des chambres naturelles d'une capacité suffisante pour abriter de cinq à trente personnes, tandis qu'une grande partie de la région est en grès de Pocono (n° X). Il y a des terres très équitables à des fins agricoles le long du fond du ruisseau, une petite zone de plateau de vallée et des terres de schiste rouge (No. IX) le long des vallées des petits ruisseaux. Le visage du canton, cependant, est surtout très accidenté et montagneux. Il y a de bonnes dalles et pierres de construction trouvées le long de la ligne de chemin de fer.

Établissement et développement. - Les colons blancs pénétrèrent de bonne heure cette région sauvage, attirés sans doute par la pêche et la chasse fines qu'elle offrait. Jacob Lamb est crédité d'avoir été le premier colon à l'embouchure de Slate run. Il a déplacé sa famille de Milton en remontant la rivière et le ruisseau dans dix canots et a atteint son point de destination en novembre de la même année. Benjamin Lamb, fils de Jacob et Jane Lamb, est né au mois de mars 1795, à l'embouchure de Slate run, et on pense qu'il a été le premier enfant blanc né aussi loin dans le ruisseau Pine.

Jacob Lamb était un homme actif et entreprenant. Il fit ériger un moulin à farine et à scie en 1796. Il s'agissait sans doute de petites améliorations, mais elles répondaient aux exigences de l'époque. Ses moulins étaient les premiers du genre dans ce qui est maintenant le canton de Brown.

William Blackwell s'installa près de la limite du comté en 1805. Il fut suivi peu après par Andrew Gamble, John Morrison et Jacob Warren. Philip et John Lamb, fils du pionnier, érigent en 1811 un moulin à scie à fond de Noyer Noir, qui sera exploité par eux pendant plusieurs années, lorsqu'il passa aux mains de Bernard Duffry. Vers 1819, Jacob Warren construisit un moulin à environ un mille au-dessus de Upper Trout Run, sur le ruisseau Pine et vers 1840, un moulin fut construit sur le même site par Chadwick & Company. Un autre a été construit par John R. Bowen & Company vers 1847 au-dessous de Cedar Run sur Pine Creek. Plusieurs autres petits moulins, sur différents ruisseaux, ont été construits il y a quarante ans, ont fonctionné peu de temps, puis ont cessé de fonctionner.

La famille Tomb faisait également partie de ceux qui se sont installés tôt à Pine Creek. Philip Tomb dans son « Pioneer Life, or Thirty Years a Hunter » dit qu'en 1791, son père a acheté un terrain en amont du ruisseau et a engagé des hommes pour construire une maison. Ils n'ont pas pleinement exécuté leur contrat. Le 1er novembre 1791, Tomb a commencé à remonter la rivière avec sa famille et ses biens dans un quillard, et lorsqu'ils ont atteint Pine Creek, l'eau s'est avérée trop basse pour que le bateau puisse remonter. Il loua dix canots et partit pour les articles dont ils avaient le plus besoin. C'était le 20 novembre quand ils arrivèrent à destination. Ils trouvèrent la maison inachevée et ils faillirent périr de froid. Aucune cheminée n'avait été construite et aucun sol n'avait été posé. Ils ont réussi à passer la première nuit. Le lendemain matin, tout le monde s'est mis au travail et en deux jours, ils ont terminé la maison suffisamment pour qu'elle soit confortable.

Le 25, son père commença à construire un moulin, ayant apporté les fers avec lui. Il fendit et coupa les bûches, creusa une course, construisit un barrage et termina tous les travaux le 1er mars. C'était à trente milles du moulin le plus proche, et avant qu'il ne démarre son moulin, ils devaient piler leur maïs dans un bloc ou un mortier.

Il raconte de merveilleuses histoires de chasse, de pêche et de serpents. Des panthères s'approchaient parfois de la maison, des ours rôdaient et des troupeaux d'élans traversaient souvent le ruisseau. Il décrit comment son père, avec l'aide de deux ou trois autres personnes, a une fois attrapé un élan vivant, sur un pari de 250 £, et l'a emmené à la taverne de Stephenson près de l'embouchure du ruisseau. L'exploit était considéré comme très audacieux parmi les chasseurs. Ce fut le premier élan capturé. Il mesurait seize mains et avait des cornes de cinq pieds et demi de long avec onze branches.

Le ruisseau était rempli de grosses truites et les serpents à sonnettes étaient si abondants à certains endroits qu'il était dangereux de voyager. À une occasion, un groupe remontant le ruisseau « a trouvé les crotales si nombreux qu'ils ont été obligés d'ancrer leur canot dans le ruisseau et d'y rester toute la nuit. Le troisième jour, ils sont arrivés au plus gros rocher du côté ouest de la , ruisseau et ont trouvé jusqu'à trente serpents couchés dessus se prélassant au soleil. Ils ont poussé jusqu'à l'autre rive, et en passant le plus petit rocher, ils ont découvert au sommet un tas de serpents à sonnettes aussi gros qu'un four à pain ! » Les histoires de chasse et de serpents de M. Tomb surpassent tout ce qui est rapporté par Munchausen. Au fil du temps, il s'est vendu et a traversé les Alleghenies, situés dans le comté de Warren, où il est décédé. Members of the Tomb family still reside on Pine creek, but they are not given to relating such wonderful stories as their great ancestor.

Another of the very earliest settlers on Pine creek was Daniel Callahan, who came from Ireland in 1750, and after the French-Indian and Revolutionary wars, in which he took part, settled on Pine creek and became a noted hunter. Among his children was John Callahan, born January 17, 1791. He always lived on the creek within a few miles of the place of his birth. When he grew up he became a great hunter like his father. Bear, deer, elk, and smaller game abounded here in early days, and the creek was, the finest fish. It was the abundance of game and fish that attracted the few early settlers into what was then a gloomy wilderness.

John Callahan married and became the father of seven sons and six daughters, all of whom are living but five and on the 17th of January, 1891, at the house of his daughter, Mrs. Henry Gamble, the one hundredth anniversary of his birth was, fittingly observed. All his, children, but, one, daughter, Were present, and it was an interesting sight. to witness the descendants of the venerable centenarian assembled around him. There were thirty-four grand and, twenty-three great grandchildren, the representatives of four generations present on this memorable occasion. The patriarch was in fairly good health, but a few days after the reunion he fell seriously ill, and on January 28, 1891, passed to the Great Beyond.

Lumbering. - From the earliest times lumbering has been the most active industry on Pine creek and its tributaries. At the mouth of Trout run there is a steam saw mill run by Drake, Landrus, & Company. There is a railroad about five. miles long up this stream which is furnished with a locomotive and cars., It is a log road and is operated by Francis Deloy, an extensive jobber. Opposite the, mouth of Cedar run John S. Tomb & Son operate a steam saw mill on a large scale, and James H. Weed & Company have a large mill at the mouth of Slate run. This firm has a railroad equipped with locomotive and cars, running back into the forest about sixteen miles, which they use for hauling logs to their mill. At the mouth of Jacob's run Wood & Childs have a steam saw mill which they operate on a large scale also.

Villages. - Several thrifty villages have grown up on Pine creek, in Brown township, mainly through the lumbering operations, which received a great impetus by the opening of the railroads a few years ago. Cedar and Slate Runs, as towns, show considerable prosperity, and travelers passing through on the railroad never fail to admire the neat appearance of the dwellings of the people and the evidences of thrift to be seen on every hand. The scenery is bold and picturesque, and in many places the mountains approach a degree of rugged grandeur that is startling to the stranger.

At Slate Run, the Slate Run Lodge, No. 1028, I. O. O. F., was instituted a few years ago, and has a good membership.

Postoffices. - There are two postoffices in Brown township, Cedar and Slate Run. The Cedar Run office was opened December 13, 1853, and Lucius Truman was appointed postmaster. His successors have been Joseph Sofield, appointed August 2, 1858 Dudley A. Fish, June 9, 1862 George H. Abrams, July 16, 1864 Enoch Lloyd, September 7, 1864 Ichabod C. Brown, December 18, 1874 Miss Carry. Brown, March 10, 1884 John G. Scarborough, February 9, 1886, George A. Gamble, present incumbent, March 26, 1889.

The office at Slate Run was established January 23, 1885, and Rosa C. Tome appointed postmaster. Grant A. Rodman, the present incumbent, succeeded her August 7, 1889.

A postoffice called Hilborn was established March 26, 1886, on the west side of Pine creek, and Mrs. Mary A. Gamble was appointed postmaster. As the business was small the office was discontinued in 1891.

Churches and Schools. - The first religious exercises were held at the house of Jacob Lamb, in 1805, by Rev. William Hay. 4 church was erected the same year Dear "Rattlesnake Rock," which was open to all denominations. In 1849-50 a church was built by the Baptists near Cedar Run, which is still in a flourishing condition. There is another Baptist church on the west side of Pine creek, called Hilburn, near the residence of Jacob Gamble. The Methodists have one at Slate Run, making three in the township.

The first school was opened and taught by John Campbell, a Scotchman, at Black Walnut Bottom in 1806, and tradition says that he taught seven days in the, week. The same year a school house was erected. Today there are six school houses in the township, viz: Childs, Trout Run, Cedar Run, Mount Ferns, Hilburn, and Slate Run. The report for 1891 shows six months taught.

This township was organized in 1832, out of territory taken from Mifflin and Brown, and named Cummings, after John Cummings, who was one of the associate judges at the time. The survey was made by Solomon Bastress, of Jersey Shore, and to give the reader an idea of its size at the time, its boundaries are condensed from the survey:

Beginning on the east bank of Pine creek, about three and one-fourth miles from its mouth, thence to a beech on Bear run, partly by Jackson township to the supposed line of Tioga county, about 110 perches east of the first fork and main branch of Pine creek, seventeen miles from its mouth thence to the Jersey Shore and Coudersport turnpike, southward by the same to Pine creek, southeast corner of Campbell and Nichol's line, crossing the creek and down the same to the place of beginning.

Cummings is still a very large township, being the third in size in the county, containing an area of 41,600 acres, with 422 inhabitants by the census of 1890. Its boundaries at the present time are as follows: On the east, Mufflin and Cogan House on the north, Pine and McHenry on the west, Clinton county, and on the south, Watson. Pine creek runs through the center of the township, with Little Pine creek flowing from the northeast as its principal tributary. On the west are Upper and Lower Pine Bottom runs, with Ramsey's run on the east. The first fork of Larry's creek also heads in the township. The principal tributaries of Little Pine creek on the east are English run, McKee's run, and Carson run.

It consists of Red Catskill (No. IX) along the valleys of the streams, upon the side bills, and on their tops. Next occur Poco rocks (No. XI) occupying the tops of the eroded hills, and the faces of the first benches of the mountains, above which (No. IX) occurs on Puterbaugh mountain, west of Big Pine creek, between Big and Little Pine Bottom runs, and along the Jersey Shore and Coudersport turnpike.

Above this occurs Pottsville conglomerate (No. XII) along the pike, where probably some of the lowest coal beds may exist, where there is sufficient dip of the conglomerates to bring in the measures.

There are some good quarries of flag and building stone along Pine creek good iron ore and fire clay occur in several places in the township, but there has been no mining.

The surface of a large portion of the township is rough and mountainous, with bold and picturesque scenery along both branches of Pine creek. There are some good farms along the valleys of these streams.

Survey and Settlement. - The first survey made in the township was lottery warrant No. 20, granted to James Strawbridge May 17, 1785, for 311 acres at the junction of the first forks of Pine creek. This land was conveyed by Strawbridge to Alexander McDowell, for whom the survey was made September 13, 1786.

John English is claimed to have been the first settler. He located on the largest of a cluster of islands in the creek, which contained twenty-seven acres and ninety-two perches, nearly twelve miles above its mouth. This was in 1784. He and his brother James had served in the Revolutionary army, having entered it in 1778. Immediately on the close of the war they came here in search of a place to settle. They were of Irish origin. John English had married Fannie, daughter of Claudius Boatman, the previous year, and she accompanied him to the new settlement. The country was extremely wild at that time and it required some nerve to settle in what was in every respect a "howling wilderness." The Seneca Indians, whose country was less than a hundred miles north, frequently came here to hunt and fish, and parties of them passed his cabin almost daily.

John English and his wife Fannie reared a large family. Their son Claudius was the first child born on this part of the creek. This was sometime in 1785. He lived near the place of his birth until 1829. William, another son, occupied the island until 1832. Sarah, a daughter, married Thomas Ramsey, and they settled about two miles from the island homestead. At her home her father ended his long life of ninety-four. She died in 1874.

James, the younger brother of John English, settled about three miles up Little Pine creek in 1809 and made some improvements, for which he obtained a warrant for 219 acres and eighty-five perches June 10, 1816, and on the 20th of the following August it was surveyed to him. James English and wife spent their lives here and reared a large family. He was a man noted for his integrity and exemplary habits, and did much during his life time to advance the interests of his locality. He built a grist and two saw mills, the ruins of which may still be seen. He died in 1855. Numerous descendants of the two brothers still live in the Pine Creek regions, while others have scattered over the country.

Industries. - Owing to the abundance of pine timber on the creek bottoms and the mountains, lumbering was the earliest and, leading industry. The first saw mill was built by Capt. Christian Stake three-fourths of a mile up Little Pine creek about 1792. It rotted away and a new mill was erected on its site in 1828 by William Watson, and it was subsequently owned by John Slonaker, of Jersey Shore.

In 1815 a mill was built on Upper Pine Bottom run by Michael Brednack, which did a small jobbing business. A new mill was erected on Pine Bottom run in 1817. It passed into the hands of George and Jacob Myers, who operated it for more than twenty years. Their lumber was floated to market in rafts. Robert Carson built a mill about 1838 seven miles up Little Pine creek. Two miles below him another mill was built about the same time.

About 1836 a mill was built at the mouth of Little Pine creek by Gates & Wilcox, which was subsequently converted into a gang mill, and later a grist mill was attached. This mill was operated on a large scale for many years and much lumber was manufactured. It afterwards became the property of James M. and Michael Wolf, of Waterville. They also improved the grist mill and were doing a prosperous business when the great flood of June 1, 1889, came and destroyed everything. About 1824 a mill was built at the mouth of Ramsey's run by Thomas Ramsey, son-in-law of John English, Sr., which was carried on for many years. There is neither saw nor grist mill in the township now.

A furnace to manufacture pig iron was erected on Upper Pine Bottom run in 1814 by Mark Slonaker', Benjamin and Henry Tomb, John Fisher, George Tomb, Solomon Bastress, and Phillip Krebbs. Iron ore had been developed near the Coudersport turnpike. The hauling of the ore to the furnace, however, proved too costly to enable the company to realize a profit, as it required from one to two days to get a load of ore from the mines to the furnace. Supplies also had to be hauled fifteen miles over steep mountains. These difficulties proved too great for the company, and after struggling along until about 1817, and losing nearly $7,000, they gave up the enterprise. The ruins of the old furnace were visible for many years.

Waterville. - The village of Waterville at the junction of Little Pine creek with the main stream, was settled early but grew slowly until the advent of the railroad. It contains two stores, a hotel, and a number of pleasant dwellings. The Wolf Brothers did much to start the village on the highway of progress, until stricken by the disastrous good of 1889.

Henry M. Wolf was among the early settlers, long before a village was thought of. His father, Michael Wolf, came from Berks county in the beginning of this century, settled in Brush valley, and cleared a farm. In 1817 he removed to Pine creek and located at Crist's mill, two miles from the mouth. There he remained until his death in 1858. Among the children of Michael Wolf was Henry M.. Wolf, now living at Wellsboro in his seventy-eighth year. In 1837 he married Mary Gamble, of Pine creek, and the union was blessed with seven sons and two daughters. Soon after marriage Mr. Wolf settled at Waterville, where he remained until a few years ago. Five of his sons served in the war. One, Andrew, was killed, and Oliver was wounded at Fredericksburg. James M., afterwards sheriff of the county, served as first lieutenant of Company I, One Hundred and Thirty-first regiment. When peace was restored he settled at Waterville and formed a partnership with big brother Michael, under the firm name of J. M. & M. Wolf, and they operated extensively as lumbermen until 1889, when their mills, were destroyed by the great flood, Another brother, John G., is postmaster of Waterville. Oliver is an extensive lumberman and lives near Antes Fort.

Waterville is a postvillage. The postoffice was established February 22, 1849, and Abraham Harris was appointed postmaster. His successors have been Jeremiah H. Callahan, appointed May 9, 1854 John H, Bitter, August 9, 1855 Joseph Bitter, February 21, 1857 William T. Jones, March 11, 1859 Jacob Weaver, March 21, 1860 Miss Ellen Harris, March 7, 1863 John G. Wolf, August 17, 1875. He is the present incumbent.

English Mills. - The next postoffice is at English Mills, on Little Pine creek, where James English originally settled. It was established September 25,1872, and Stephen English was appointed postmaster. He is still in office.

Ramseyville. - An office was established at Ramsey's, below Waterville, January 8, 1889, and named, Ramseyville. George A. Ramsey was appointed postmaster, and he still holds the office.

Paducohi. - There are some eligible locations in this township for summer cottages. In 1886 four gentlemen of Williamsport - F. W. Page, J. B. Duble, E. A. Cornell, and J. C. Hill - united for the purpose of building a cottage on Pine creek, a short distance above Waterville, where they could take their families during the summer months for, rest and recreation. A pleasant, site was selected and a comfortable yet inexpensive building was erected, where, without being subjected to the annoyance, expense, and conventionalities of fashionable resorts, each family is enabled to spend a few weeks of the season with comfort, pleasure, and profit, surrounded by pure air and beautiful mountain scenery, and in sight of passing trains on the Fall Brook railroad. The cottage is named Paducohi, a title as appropriate as it is odd. When the question of selecting a name came up Miss Mable C. Duble suggested that by combining the two first letters of the last names of Page, Duble, Cornell, and Hill, a title could be produced wholly unlike any other known. Her suggestion was adopted and the cottage was named Paducohi.

Churches. - The first church was built here and dedicated by Rev. Gideon H. Day in July, 1850. Mr. Day was an active, enterprising minister of the Methodist Episcopal church. Religious meetings, however, were held in the township as early as 1805, at the house of John English, by Rev. John Thomas, the pioneer of Methodism in this region. Rev. Timothy Lee, another ardent worker, conducted meetings here in 1809. The present church was built by the people as a Methodist Episcopal place of worship, with a clause in the deed that it should be free to all Protestant denominations when not in use by the Methodists. The Baptists and Methodists have preaching services on alternate Sundays. The Methodists also have preaching services in the East Hill and Carson school houses.

Écoles. - The first school in the township was taught by Robert Young in 1806 at the First Fork. He was a man of great piety and noted for his strong advocacy of temperance. The first school house erected exclusively for that purpose was on the main creek, one and a quarter miles below Waterville, in 1828. There are now five in the township, named as follows: Waterville, Ramsey, English Mill, Carson, and East Hill. The report for 1891 shows an average of six months taught by five female teachers at $28 per month.

This township was organized from territory taken from Brown, Cummings, and Cogan House townships. On a petition for division being presented in 1856, the court appointed James Wilson, W. H. Miller, and Robert Crane as viewers. They reported favorably, and on November 18, 1856, the report was confirmed nisi. In the meantime a meeting of citizens was held at the Kingston House, English Centre, and a resolution that the now township might be called Kingston was passed. The resolution seems to have had no weight, for the report of the viewers was confirmed absolute January 27, 1857, and the new township named Pine, because of the heavy forests of pine timber which covered its surface.

Pine is the first in size in the county and contains 48,640 acres. By the census of 1890 the population was 901. It is bounded on the east by Jackson and Cogan House, on the north by Tioga county, on the west by Brown and McHenry, and on the south by Cummings and Cogan House.

The immense territory embraced by this township is very wild and mountainous, and until within a few years contained primitive forests. It contains about three-fourths of what is known as the Weightman or Pine Creek coal basin, which is composed of formations (Nos. XI, XII, and XIII). Among these occur quite, a large area of the mountain plateau lands, being mostly (No. XI) red shale.

There is an area of valley plateau red shade (No. IX) lands at Oregon Hill, of considerable extent, and 1,650 feet above tide, which, with the narrow bottoms along the streams, makes a considerable extent of farm land outside of the coal basin.

The corustone marl (No. IX) occurs at the mouth of Otter run, some seven feet in thickness. A trial was made of it as an agricultural lime, but it was found to contain too much iron and was not successful. A specimen near this was found to contain bismuth. Copper shales occur at quite a number of places along Little Pine creek in thin seams and pockets near these deposits of calcareous breccia or corustone. Chlorite slates from one to twelve inches thick are also associated with these deposits, and are more or less colored green with the salts of copper. Just above English Centre a deposit of this kind extends for five or ten rods among the rocks above the public road, in the narrows on the west side of the creek and there is another deposit three miles below the village on the east side.

Large areas of iron ore, fire clays, and coal occur in this township. The coal basin is the largest yet undeveloped in this county. (See general chapter on geology:) There are some good building and flagstone found at various places.

The surface of Pine township is mostly mountainous in the southern and central parts, and rolling in the northern part. The glacial moraine occupied the greater portion of the township. It occurs with characteristic knob-like hills, holding kettle holes, one and a fourth miles south of Oregon Hill, with swamps on the very summit of the mountain, about 1,900 feet above the sea. The moraine appears to, leave Lycoming county in the northwest corner of Pine township.

Pine township is well watered. Little Pine creek runs through the eastern part and falls into the main creek at Waterville. Its course is through a deep and wild ravine, up which a road runs to English Centre. The scenery is bold and picturesque the mountains are lofty and impress the traveler with their grandeur and beauty. The great flood of June 1, 1889, tore through this ravine with terrific force, destroying fine bottom farm lands by covering them with sand and stones, sweeping away fences, bridges, mills, and houses, leaving utter desolation behind. The principal tributaries of Little Pine creek on the east are Callahan's run, English run, Lick run, Bear run, Block House fork, Wolf run, Rock run, and Crooked creek on the west side, Otter run, with Buckeye branch, Pine run, Bonnell run, Four Mile inn, and Hews run flowing northeastward from Oregon Hill. In the, northwestern corner rises Trout run, which flows through Brown township and empties into main Pine creek.

Although many saw mills were once operated in the township there are none. maintenant. Neither are there any grist mills. Considerable lumbering is yet done, but, it consists in cutting the timber into logs and floating them to the boom at Williamsport to be manufactured. In this industry a large number of men are employed by the jobbers.

A Seminary in the Wilderness. - The first survey within the present limits of the township was lottery warrant No. 55, to Ludwig Karcher, dated May 17, 1785, calling for 419 acres, including the first fork of Pine creek. The land was surveyed during August, 1785, and patented October 28, 1788. The first permanent, settlement was made by John Norris, who located on lands covered by warrant 1598, surveyed by Hughes & Fisher, about nineteen miles above the mouth of Little Pine creek on the west bank of the same, where the hamlet of Texas is situated. Norris settled here in 1800. He had no family but a wife and an adopted son, who afterwards took up his residence in Wellsboro. A small saw mill was built by Norris about 1803. It was a primitive affair, but served to furnish the few settlers in that region with lumber. At the same time Philip Moore, another pioneer, built a grist mill, which also served a useful purpose, as there was no other mill nearer than that of Col. Henry Antes, near Jersey Shore. Moore appears to, have been a man of enterprise. About the time he built his mill he erected a large two story frame house, divided into four square rooms below, and otherwise arranged for a dwelling. At that day such a building was looked upon as a great improvement in that wilderness region, attracted much attention, and called forth many curious remarks.

John Norris was a man of education. In 1806 he leased the house from Moore and, turned it into a female seminary, he and his wife serving as teachers. This was a bold venture, but it proved eminently successful. There being no other school of the kind in this part of northern Pennsylvania, parents who were able, to educate their daughters placed them in charge of Mr. and Mrs. Norris, and the result was that some of the best young ladies of that day were educated at the wilderness seminary. Among them may be mentioned the following: Ann Blackwell, afterwards the wife of Benjamin Lamb Hannah Blackwell, wife of Henry Lamb Maria Davidson, daughter of Dr. James Davidson, the Revolutionary Burgeon, who settled near Jersey Shore Elizabeth Burrows, of Montoursville, who became the wife of Tunison Coryell, of Williamsport Jane Morrison, afterward married to Samuel Morrison, a namesake Priscilla Morrison, married to Thomas Martin, and Elizabeth Porter, who remained single. There were others, doubtless, but their names have not been preserved.

The Norris Seminary was reached by the State road, which had been opened a few years before from Newberry to Painted Post. It was regarded as an important thoroughfare at that day, and there was a great deal of travel over it in fact, it was the main route to Wellsboro and the settlements beyond.

"The English Settlement." - It was in this. township that the colony known as the "English Settlement" was founded soon after the beginning of the century, and suffered great hardships, The country was wild and inhospitable. Heavy timber covered the hills and there was no cleared land. The history of that affair, which was little less than criminal on the part of the prime move, is as follows:

In 1805, Rev. John Hey, of the Independent Church of England, as he styled himself, was living in Philadelphia. He was an Englishman by birth. At that time there was a great rage to found colonies by those who had acquired large bodies of land. Men of means, it seems, were not content with a few hundred acres, but they sought to own tens of thousands. This desire was largely begotten by the example of Robert Morris, Phelps & Gorham, and others, to own nearly the entire northern part of the State, and the southwestern part of Now York. Land was cheap, and they imagined they saw immense wealth in these vast landed possessions.

Rev, John Hey became imbued with the same ideas, and becoming acquainted with Colonel Kingsbury, agent for Samuel W. Fisher, and others, who owned thousands of acres of wild land, conceived the idea of purchasing a large body of land for the purpose of founding a colony. Fisher was a merchant in Philadelphia. A bargain was struck and June 12, 1805, Fisher and those interested with him in the ownership of 110,859 acres (See Deed Book F, page 195), conveyed to Hey the following named fifteen tracts in consideration of $21,757: Lenox, Wheatfield, Bethlehem, Auburn, Maple Bottom Pine Grove, Mexico, Fertility, Hampstead, Vermont, Brighton, Fairfield, Hickory Grove, Beech Plain, and Richelieu, each containing 990 acres, making a total of 14,820 acres, at a cost of about $1.47 an acre.

Having acquired this large body of land Rev. John Hey visited Haven Parish, England, for the purpose of inducing a colony of his countrymen to emigrate and settle on these lands. He painted to them in glowing language the beauty of the virgin country how he would sell them lands at a small advance on the cost, and they could in a few years clear them and found comfortable homes. He succeeded in inducing the following parties to emigrate: Enoch Blackwell, Mr. Sherborn, Mr. Wells, Henry Hews, Jabez Hay, Joshua Blackwell, Peter Blackwell, Joseph Maggs, John Crook, William Blackwell, Nathaniel Blackwell, and Joshua Blackwell. Enoch Blackwell, Sherborn, and Wells preceded the others, who soon followed. All these emigrants, when they arrived here in 1806, made their way to Williamsport and passed over the State road from Newberry to the place where the colony was to be founded in the wilderness. On the 10th of September, 1807, Hey deeded fifty acres to Maggs in consideration of $150. It was located near Moore's mill, on the Wills tract on the 12th of the same month he conveyed 200 acres to Henry Hews for $600, on the tract called Lenox and on the 20th 1, 200 acres to Enoch Blackwell for $3,600, on the tract called Maple Bottom now known as Oregon Hill. Jabez Hay purchased 200 acres, June 10, 1808, for $600, and Joshua Blackwell paid $450 for 150 acres.

When these emigrants settled here there were no improvements. It was a dense forest. They were unused to the hard work of clearing land covered with heavy timber, and to use the language of a descendant, "they did not know how to cut down big trees!" Winter came on before the had scarcely succeeded in erecting cabins to shelter them, and as their scanty stores were soon exhausted, starvation began to stare them in the face. Their first winter in the wilderness was a dreary one. Summer came on and they did a little better, but they soon began to realize their condition and they felt that if they had not been deceived, it was cruel to lead them into the gloomy forest where it was almost impossible to subsist. Had it not been for the abundance of game some of them must have starved.

Sherborn and Wells were the first to leave the settlement. Others soon followed. In the meantime Enoch Blackwell was working hard to clear up a farm, and a few others followed his example. But becoming discouraged, Enoch Blackwell, his son William, and family left Oregon Hill in 1811, and settled on Pine creek, at what is now known as the town of Blackwell's, just outside of Lycoming county. When they came there they found A. P. Harris and George Bonnell living on their land, which was embraced in their purchase from Hey. The Blackwells proved their title, and commenced to make improvements. They early engaged in lumbering and prospered. Enoch died at Jersey Shore in 1816, aged sixty-five, and was buried in the Davidson burial ground near the mouth of Pine creek. William, his son, succeeded to the estate, and died at Blackwell's, December 6, 1859, aged seventy years. Enoch, son of William, and grandson of Enoch the pioneer, lives there today. He was born, January 29, 1824, and has lived to see wonderful changes and improvements not only on Pine creek, but on the hill where his ancestors first settled in 1806.

The first death in the settlement occurred in 1808. John Crook, while hunting, was killed by the accidental discharge of a gun in his hands. He was buried on his own land and his grave was pointed out for a long time.

The first child born in the settlement was Sarah, daughter of Peter Blackwell, in 1806. When she grew to womanhood she married Capt. George Davis of the merchant marine service and went to live in New York.

One by one the original settlers departed. Henry Hews sold his 200 acres to Jacob Warren, September 13, 1815, for $400, a loss of $200, and left. He died at Trout Run, as may be seen in the review of Lewis township. Maggs settled at Jersey Shore and died there, Nathaniel Blackwell also reached Jersey Shore in time and settling on a farm owned by John A. Gamble, carried it on for him till old age compelled him to cease work. He died at the house of his son, J. M. Blackwell, in Jersey Shore, May 31,1882, in his eighty-sixth year. He was only about nine years of age when he accompanied his parents to the English settlement, and never forgot the horrors of their residence, in the wilderness.

The settlement being abandoned by nearly all the original emigrants, and Rev. John Hey having died, the land passed into the possession of the Keims, of Reading. Jacob Warren, an Englishman, was then appointed their agent. He came to Philadelphia, but in 1816 took up his residence in Brown township near the lands. He died there in 1831 and was buried at Oregon Hill. Thomas Lloyd, also an Englishman, succeeded him. He died in 1859, when Enoch Blackwell, of Blackwell's, became agent for the Keim estate and he only succeeded in closing up the business in, 1877, Such, in brief, is the history of the English settlement in what is now Pine township. It was an unfortunate affair and caused much suffering and misery for those who were concerned in it.

Oregon Hill. - But there is a silver lining to every cloud. Oregon Hill is now a beautiful and thrifty hamlet of twelve or fifteen houses, two churches, Evangelical and Methodist, two stores, and one blacksmith shop. Finely cultivated farms, yielding abundantly, surround the settlement and travelers are surprised at the fertility of the land and the prosperity of the people. In the cemetery are buried some of those who were identified with the colony.

A postoffice, called Oregon Hill, was established there September 20, 1869, and Hiram G. Mattoon was appointed postmaster. His successors have been as follows: James E. Brown, appointed February 8, 1877 Hiram G. Mattoon, August 3, 1881 Orison J. Graham, November 2, 1886. He is the present incumbent.

It is difficult to explain how the place got the name of Oregon Hill. Mr. Enoch Blackwell, who was born near there, and is familiar with its history, is unable to account for it. He says that in 1844 a few Mormons settled just over the line in Tioga county and the, people called their settlement "Nauvoo." Soon after this a lumbering camp was started a few miles further down the stream and named "Texas," because it was about the time of the war with Mexico and later the name "Oregon" was given to the hill region, being suggested probably by the phrase, "fifty-four, forty, or fight," used in connection with the dispute with England regarding the boundary line in Oregon, the "hill" being added because you have to make an ascent to reach the settlement-and then it was originally settled by English people

English Centre . - The largest village in the township is English Centre, so named because it was the center of the settlement of those bearing the name of English. It is located on Little Pine creek about twelve miles from its mouth, surrounded by high mountains, which lend an air of extreme wildness to the place. Years ago Jeremiah English used to operate a large saw mill there, but it has entirely disappeared. This place is also the terminus of the Larry's creek plank road English Centre contains one church, several stores, three hotels, one licensed, the others not, and the tannery of Samuel Davidge & Company. This is a large industry giving employment to one hundred or more men. A splendid iron bridge crosses the creek near the licensed hotel, kept by Mr. English, and there are two more a short distance below. The three most numerous families living on the creek are the Carsons, Callahans, and Englishes.

English Centre suffered severely during the great flood of June 1, 1889. Many houses were overturned, fences destroyed, and all the bridges carried away. The water came down the narrow ravine in which the town is situated in a mighty torrent, filling it from hill to hill, and the inhabitants were forced to fly for safety. this being the central point for lumbermen, there is considerable stir at times and much business transacted.

English Centre is an old settlement. As early as October 25, 1844, a postoffice was established there and called Little Pine Creek, and John M. English was appointed postmaster. His successors were: Ellis English, appointed August 15 1846 William Boatman, September 16, 1846 Claudius Boatman, July 14, 1849 David Kelly, May 19, 1854 Benjamin Kirk, May 16, 1855 James M. English, July 19, 1855.

Little Pine Creek was changed to English Centre, February 29, 1856, and Jacob C. Resse was appointed postmaster. His successors have been as follows: Jeremiah English, January 7, 1862 Eugene A. Miller, February 7,1871 Bruce Elmore, October 9, 1874 Isaac Gildersleeve August 7, 1876 Harry Harling, May 5, 1879 Edward Hardenburg, April 23, 1880 John R. Hartwell, April 11, 1881. He is the present incumbent.

Écoles. - There are seven school houses in this township, named as follows: English Centre, graded Oregon Hill, graded Callahan, Chestnut Grove, Snow, Glen, and Texas. The report for 1891 shows six and one-half months taught by three male and eight female teachers.

As early as September, 1845, the movement to create a now township in the Pine Creek region was commenced. At that date, on petition the court appointed A. H. McHenry, William Porter, and George Quiggle, all of Jersey Shore, as viewers on a proposed new township to be made out of parts of Cummings and Porter. Their report was favorable, bat the matter seems to have been dropped, as we find no farther reference to it. The project was not renewed again till January sessions, 1855, when James M. English, Warren Evans, and others petitioned the court praying for a new township to be erected out of parts of Brown and Cummings, to be called English. On the 7th of February, 1855, the court appointed James Wilson, Samuel G. Morrison, and Jacob W. Pfouts, all of Jersey. Shore, viewers. Nothing seems to have come of this movement, as the official records are silent. The movement was revived again next year, for we find that James Wilson, William H. Miller, and Robert Crane, all of Jersey Shore, were appointed to view a proposed new township to be made out of Brown, Cummings, and Cogan House. They performed their duty and made a favorable report November 15, 1856, and on the 18th it was confirmed nisi, and named Kingston.

Soon afterwards a meeting of citizens was held at the Kingston House, English Centre, and they resolved that "out of the respect and esteem they entertained for Alexander H. McHenry, Esq.," it should be called McHenry township.

Still there seems to have been opposition to the creation of the new township, and the movement "hung fire," for at January sessions, 1861, a petition was presented praying for a new township to be formed out of Cummings and Brown. The court appointed A. H, McHenry, E. D. Trump, and Thomas McCurdy, all residents of Jersey Shore, to serve as viewers and report the result of their investigations.

They reported favorably and the court ordered an election to be held July 20, 1861. The majority of voters favored the division, whereupon the court, on August 21, 1861, made a decree erecting the now township and directed that it be called McHenry. This was in honor of A. H. McHenry, late of Jersey Shore, the veteran surveyor. The fight had lasted for a period of sixteen years before victory was secured, and a township named after him.

This township lies in the Pine Creek mountains, is the third in size in the county, and covers an era of 42,920 acres, with a population of 608 by the census of 1890. It is bounded on the east by Cummings and Pine, on the north by Brown, On the west by Clinton county, and on the south by Cummings. Pine creek sweeps through it from the northwest to the southeast corner. Its principal tributaries are Mill run on the east, and Trout run, Harris's run, and Pine Bottom run on the west.

The region of country lying within the borders of McHenry township is wild and broken, and at many points the mountain scenery is bold and imposing. It consists of formations'(Nos. XI, XII, and XIII), which occupy the northeast corner being the western end of the ' Pine Creek coal basin. A small area of the same formation is formed in the southwest, and all along the western boundary of the Jersey Shore and Coudersport turnpike there is a narrow belt of these rocks. Among them are quite large areas of the mountain plateau lands of Mauch Chunk (umbral) red shale (No. XI). Some of these areas are quite fertile, while other portions are known as "barrens," containing much iron ore.

Along the valleys of the streams some fair bottom land is found on the side bills and at the heads of the streams, there are quite large areas of Catskill red shale (No. IX) with its accompanying breccia, or corustone, of which a good section can be seen in the cuts of the Fall Brook railroad, just above Cammal station. Here this peculiar formation can be studied, and its mode of thickening and thinning in ellipsoid or concretionary forms can, be plainly observed from one to six feet or more in thickness. There are good exposures for flagging and building stone, and coal, fire clays, and iron ore abound quite extensively in the undeveloped coal basins.

Règlement. - Notwithstanding the wildness, of this region explorers made their way up Pine creek quite early. The first warrant was No. 456, to John Nixon, dated May 17, 1785, and the survey was made September 26, 1785 for 5191 acres. The line commenced a short distance above the site of Jersey Mills and extended up Pine creek to the mouth of Trout run, four miles. Claudius Boatman settled at the mouth of Callahan's run, October 17, 1785. His son-in-law, Comfort Wanzer, settled about the same time a short distance below on the same tract that was subsequently settled by Abraham Harris in 1802. Boatman, the pioneer, was a Frenchman by birth. He came from Buffalo valley, where, it will be remembered, his daughter Rebecca was scalped by the Indians while making one of their last forays. She was found and cared for, and recovered. In after years she married Isaac Smee and had three sons, Charles, John, and Alpheus, and two daughters Mary married Louis Hostrander Elizabeth, John Shaner. Their mother lived to a good age, but never had any hair on her head after being scalped.

It is claimed that the first child born within the present territory of McHenry was William Boatman, son of Claudius and Esther Boatman, in 1787. They had several children besides this son and Rebecca. Another daughter named Fanny married John English, who had located as early as 1784 on what has since been known as English island in Pine creek, He was warned by "Shawney John," a friendly Indian, to leave as the savages were about to make a descent on Pine creek. He heeded the warning and remained away about a year, when he returned.

Esther Boatman, wife of Claudius, was a very useful woman in the settlement. She was a nurse and physician and quite successful in her ministrations to the sick. She was a very large woman, weighing about 250 pounds. Fanny, her daughter, also became very stout. Another daughter named Jane married James English, who was a Revolutionary soldier and settled on Pine creek, and her sister Margaret married John Morrison, who resided at Horse Shoo bottom opposite Cedar run. William, their brother, settled in 1832 about two miles below the present village of English Centre.

Claudius Boatman removed from the place where he first settled to the spring opposite Jersey Mills in 1796, where he died about 1802 at the great age of ninety-eight. When his wife died is unknown. On a slight elevation, a few rods east of the first fork of Pine creek, repose the remains of Claudius Boatman and wife, Comfort Wanzer and wife, and William Hamlin, father of Rev. Benjamin Hamlin, Probably other members of the family were buried there. A grove of young timber surrounds their graves. When Waterville was laid out Capt. James M. Wolf directed the engineers not to disturb their graves.

Lumbering has been largely carried on in this township. As early as 1810 a saw mill was built on Trout run by Jeremiah Morrison and brother, which was run several years. In 1810 Abraham Harris built a mill on Harris's run, which was operated until 1846. Two mills were built on Mill run one in 1812, and the other in 1840 by George and Abner Campbell. The first was burned in 1835, and the second disappeared about 1848. In 1848 a large gang mill was built at Harris's island by Crane, Day & Baldwin. It changed hands many times, but did a large business. In 1849 McHenry & Bubb started a mill which they operated for several years. George Brown & Sons put up a mill on the site of the Abraham Harris mill in 1849. A steam mill was erected in 1870 by C. M. Laporte three miles up Harris's run, which was operated two or three years and then removed on account of the scarcity of timber to Upper Pine Bottom run. It was burned in October, 1875. About 1850 Lucius Truman built a steam mill on Bark Cabin run, which he operated for some time. Nearly all of these mills have disappeared or crumbled into ruins.

A railroad is now (1892) being built from Cammal to English Centre via Oregon Hill, a distance of fifteen miles, by C. E. Thomas & Company, of Shenandoah, for the purpose of getting out "prop timber" for the mines. It is to be standard gauge, and on account of the steep grades, a "stem winder" locomotive will be used. This road will afford an outlet for a large amount of timber and lumber.

Postoffices. - A postoffice was established at Jersey Mills, January 19, 1855, and Levi Fisk was appointed postmaster. His successors appear as follows: William Stoddard, October 9, 1855 John J. Coolidge, October 14, 1870 M. Bonnell, April 5, 1875. He is the present incumbent.

"Cammal," which is a contraction of the word Campbell, was established September 16, 1884 James Lamison was appointed postmaster, and he is still the. incumbent. The Campbells are old settlers here, and a little village is growing up around the railroad station, which is called Cammal. Lodge No. 1001, I. O. O. F., was recently instituted here.

Okome, the last postoffice, was established April 7, 1890, and Carl P. Carlson, was appointed postmaster. He is the present incumbent.

Écoles. - The first school within the limits of the township was taught by Robert Young in 1804, and the first school house was built about half a mile above where Claudius Boatman settled in 1808. The township now has four school houses, viz: Jersey Mills, Cammal, Ross, and Mt. Zion. The report for 1891 shows seven months taught, with four female teachers receiving an average of $27.50 per month.


Welcome to Jacobsburg Historical Society

Jacobsburg Historical Society was an idea born in the fall of 1972. Members of various community groups worked together for a common cause: to preserve the beauty of the Bushkill Creek Valley, particularly the Henrys Woods area. They also pledged to bring to life the rich history and culture of the lost industrial community area of Jacobsburg, Filetown, and Boulton.

We are still dedicated, over forty years later, to preserving and presenting the art and industry of making early American firearms and the character of the individuals and community that created and sustained that enterprise. We have transformed the historic Henry Homestead into the internationally-known Pennsylvania Longrifle Museum, opened J. Joseph Henry’s 1832 mansion as a fascinating house museum for the public, and organized and continue to develop an important Archive that researchers use to study two hundred years of American history. And the Society continues to devise new ways to fulfill our mission. Plus récemment, nous avons numérisé et rendu disponible sur ce site Web quarante ans de newsletter de notre société, chaque numéro présentant à la fois des recherches originales et des rapports sur les événements et les membres de la société.

Veuillez envisager de devenir membre de la Société historique de Jacobsburg et de nous soutenir avec un don pour nous aider à poursuivre ce travail.


Voir la vidéo: The River Ran Red, Homestead, PA, 1892 (Juin 2022).